Дорога домой. Выпуск ДД-21.1а  [06апр07а]

Основа христианского учения находится в жизни, чудесах, притчах и учении Господа Иисуса Христа. Все молитвы, богослужения в течение целого года, праздники, история Церкви, нравоучение, учение о жизни, все, все в христианстве исходит от туда.
    Содержание: (1) Nativity of the Most Holy Mother of God; (2) Entry into the Church of the Most Holy Virgin Mary; (3) Annunciation of the Most Holy Virgin Mary; (4) Christ's Christmas; (5) Поклонение волхвов; (6) Meeting of the Lord; (7) Двенадцатилетний отрок Иисус в храме; (8) Saint John the Baptist; (9) Baptism of the Lord; (10) Первые ученики Иисуса Христа; (11) Изгнание торгующих из храма; (12) Beheading of St. John the Baptist; (13) Transfiguration of the Lord; (14) Lazarus' Resurrection; (15) Entry of the Lord into Jerusalem; (16) "Secret" [Last] Supper; (17) Judas's Betrayal; (18) Jesus Christ's capture and His Judgement at the Court of chief Priest "Каиафы" [Caiaphas]; (19) Judgement of Jesus Christ at Pontius Pilate; (20) Crucifixion and Death of the Lord Jesus Christ; (21) Burial of the Lord Jesus Christ; (22) Resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ. Christ's Paskha [Easter]; (23) Явление воскресшего Господа; (24) The Ascension of the Lord; (25) The Descent of the Holy Spirit on the Apostles; (26) Dormition of the Mother of God (Dormition).
    (По учебнику Протоиерея Аполлония Темномерова, «Священная История Новаго Завета», Петроград, 1915 г.).

1. Nativity of the Most Holy Mother of God.   (1-st of the Twelve Holy Days). In the city of Nazareth lived righteous Jacob and Anna. They both lived up to an old age, but had no children. They zealously prayed, that God should give them the son or the daughter, and gave the promise, -- that if the child will be born to them, to devote him(her) to the service of God, at the church. The Lord heard their prayers: the daughter was born to them and they named her Maria.
    Nativity of the Most Holy Mother of God is celebrated on September 8/21.

     Тропарь, глас 4-й:
     Рождество Твое, Богородице Дево,
     радость возвести всей вселенней:
     из Тебе бо возсия Солнце правды Христос Бог наш,
     и разрушив клятву, даде благословение,
     и упразднив смерть, дарова нам живот вечный.

     Кондак, глас 4-й:
     Иоаким и Анна поношения безчадства,
     и Адам и Ева от тли смертныя свободистася,
     Пречистая, во святем рождестве Твоем.
     То празднуют и Людие Твои,
     вины прегрешений избавльшеся, внегда звати Ти:
     неплоды раждает Богородицу и питательницу жизни нашея.

2. Entry into the Church of the Most Holy Virgin Mary.  (2nd of the Twelve Holy Days). (The Entry). When Virgin Mary became three years old, Jacob and Anna kept their promise and brought Her into the Jerusalem temple. The First Priest met Virgin Mary at the entrance and, on the guidance of the Holy Spirit, led Her into the special place, into the holiest of the holy, where he himself could enter only once a year. The Virgin Mary remained to live at the church and most of the time She spent in prayer and reading holy books.
     Most Holy Virgin Mary lived at the church until her 14-th year. After that, under the law, she had to return to Her parents or get married. But, by this time, Jacob and Anna already died. Virgin Mary did not want to get married since she gave a promise to remain maiden. Then the priests betrothed Her to a distant relative, eighty years old elder Joseph, to take care of her, as his own daughter. Joseph lived in Nazareth: he was not a rich person and was a carpenter.
     Entry into the Church of the Most Holy Virgin Mary is observed on November 21/December 4.

     Тропарь, глас 4-й:
     Днесь благоволения Божия предображение
     и человеков спасения проповедание:
     в храме Божии ясно Дева является,
     и Христа всем предвозвещает,
     Той и мы велегласно возопиим:
     радуйся, смотрения Зиждителева исполнение.

     Кондак, глас 4-й:
     Пречистый храм Спасов,
     многоценный чертог и Дева,
     священное сокровище славы Божия,
     днесь вводится в дом Господень,
     благодать совводящи, яже в Дусе Божественнем,
     Юже воспевают Ангели Божии:
     Сия есть селение небесное.

3. Annunciation of the Most Holy Virgin Mary.   (3rd of the Twelve Holy Days) (Luke 1:26-38) (Annunciation). When Virgin Mary lived at Joseph, God sent to Her Archangel Gabriel to inform Her of a good news, the birth from Her of the Savior of the world. He appeared to her with such words: "Be glad, full of Grace, God is with you, you are the blessed among the women". Virgin Mary was puzzled and thought: what does this greeting mean? The Archangel continued: "be not afraid, Mary, you received good Grace from God; you will give the birth to the Son and will name Him Jesus". Virgin Mary was confused and asked: "How can this be, when I am not married"? The Archangel answered: "the Holy Spirit will come into you and the strength of the All Powerful One will come upon you, therefore the Sacred born will be named Son of God". Virgin Mary humbly said: "I am Lord's servant, let it be according to your words". And the angel departed from Her.
     Annunciation of the Most Holy Virgin Mary is observed on March 25/April 7.

     Тропарь, глас 4-й:
     Днесь спасения нашего главизна,
     и еже от века таинства явление,
     Сын Божий Сын Девы бывает,
     и Гавриил благодать благовествует.
     Темже и мы с ним Богородице возопиим:
     радуйся, Благодатная, Господь с Тобою.

     Кондак, глас 8-й:
     Взбранной Воеводе победительная,
     яко избавльшеся от злых,
     благодарственная восписуем Ти раби Твои, Богородице:
     но яко имущая державу непобедимую,
     от всяких нас бед свободи,
     да зовем Ти: радуйся, Невесто Неневестная.

4. Christ's Christmas.   (Luke 2:1-21) (Christmas). The Roman emperor August ordered to have the population census in Judea which was his subject. For this purpose every Jew had to register his name in the city where his ancestors lived. Joseph and Mary went to register to the city of Bethlehem. Here they could not find a place in the house since due to the census in Bethlehem there were a lot of people. They have stopped outside the city in a cave where shepherds used to round-up their cattle in a bad weather. Here at night the Holy Virgin gave birth to the Baby, swaddled (wrapped) Him and laid Him in a manger (trough).
     At the night of Christ's birth the Betlehem shepherds had their herds grazing in a field. Suddenly an angel appeared. The shepherds were afraid. But the angel told them: "Do not be afraid! I announce to you a great joy: in this night the Savior of the world was born and here is the sign: you will find the Infant in the swaddling cloth, laying in a manger". At this time many angels appeared in the sky, who glorified God and sang: "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men".
     When angels disappeared, shepherds began to say: "let us go to Bethlehem and see what God has revealed to us". They came to the cave and found Mary, Joseph and the Babe laying in a manger. They greeted Him by bowing and told Joseph and Mary what they saw and heard from angels. On the eighth day after the birth the name Jesus was given to Him.
     The Birth of Christ (Christmas) is observed on 25th December/7th January.

     Тропарь, глас 4-й:
     Рождество Твое, Христе Боже наш,
     Возсия мирови свет разума,
     в нем бо звездам служащии
     звездою учахуся,
     Тебе кланятися Солнцу правды
     и Тебе ведети с высоты Востока:
     Господи, слава Тебе!

     Кондак, глас 3-й:
     Дева днесь Пресущественнаго раждает,
     и земля вертеп Неприступному приносит:
     Ангели с пастырьми славословят,
     волсви же со звездою путешествуют:
     нас бо ради родися Отроча младо, превечный Бог.

5. Поклонение волхвов.   (Матфея 2:1-12). Когда Господь Иисус Христос родился в Вифлиеме, из далекой восточной страны пришли в Иерусалим волхвы и спрашивали: «где родившийся Царь Иудейский? Мы видели звезду Его на востоке и пришли поклониться Ему»?
     Царь Ирод, услышав это, очень испугался думая что новый царь отнимет у него престол и поэтому решил его убить. Он позвал к себе первосвященников и книжников и спросил их: «где должно родиться Христу». Они отвечали: «в Вифлееме Иудейском, потому что так написано у пророка Михея». Тогда Ирод тайно призвал к себе волхвов, узнал у них время явления звезды и сказал им: «идите в Вифлеем и узнайте о Младенце, и когда найдете Его, сообщите мне чтобы я мог поклониться Ему.« Волхвы пошли в Вифлеем, и звезда шла перед ними и привела к тому месту, где был Младенец Иисус. Волхвы поклонились Ему и принесли дары: золото, ладан и смирну (благовонная смола). Потом они хотели идти в Иерусалим к Ироду, но во сне получили указание от Господа и вернулись другой дорогой в свою страну.
     Когда Ирод узнал, что волхвы обманули его, рассердился и послал воинов убить в Вифлееме и его окрестностях всех младенцев мужского пола от двух лет и ниже. Воины пошли и убили четырнадцать тысяч младенцев. Ирод рассчитывал, что в том числе будет убит и родившийся Царь. Но Иосиф и Мария, по указанию ангела, заранее ушли с Младенцем в Египет и возвратились оттуда в Назарет только после смерти Ирода.

6. Meeting of the Lord.   (Luke 2:22-39) (Meeting). The Jews had the law, to bring the first born son on his fortieth day to the to the temple to be dedicated to God. In such cases they also brought a sacrifice: the rich -- a lamb and a dove, and the poor two young doves. When Jesus Christ was forty days old, the Virgin Mary and Joseph brought Him to the Jerusalem church and since they were poor, they brought as a sacrifice two doves. On the same day came to the church an old man by name of Simon to whom it was predicted, that he will not die until he sees Christ the Savior. He met Mary with the Infant and took Him in his arms and said: "Now I can die peacefully, because my eyes have seen the Savior of the world".
     In the church there was Anna prophetess, 84 years old, who said to those present that this Infant is the Savior of the world.
     Presentation of the Lord is observed on February 2/15.

     Молитва св. Симеона Богоприимца, (поется на Вечерни, 1-ая часть Всенощной):
     Ныне отпущаеши раба Твоего Владыко,
     по глаголу Твоему с миром;
     яко видеста очи мои спасение Твое,
     еже еси уготовал пред лицем всех людей,
     свет во откровение языков
     и славу людей Твоих Израиля. (Луки 2:29-32).

7. Двенадцатилетний отрок Иисус в храме.   (Луки 2:41-52). Иосиф и Пресвятая Мария каждый год ходили из Назарета в Иерусалим на праздник Пасхи. Когда Господу Иисусу Христу исполнилось 12 лет, они взяли Его с собою. По окончании праздника все отправились домой, Отрок же Иисус остался в Иерусалиме. Иосиф и Мария не заметили этого, думая, что Он идет с другими путниками. Так они прошли целый день; когда же и на ночлеге Отрока не оказалось среди родных и знакомых, Мария и Иосиф в беспокойстве вернулись в Иерусалим и стали искать Его там.
     Через три дня они нашли Иисуса в храме. Он находился среди учителей, слушал их и Сам спрашивал их, и все присутствующие удивлялись Его разуму и ответам. «Чадо»! обратилась к Сыну Пресвятая Дева Мария: «что Ты сделал с нами? Вот отец Твой и Я с великой скорбью искали Тебя». Иисус же ответил на это: «Зачем было вам искать Меня? Или вы не знали, что Мне должно быть в том, что принадлежит Отцу Моему»? Они не поняли этих слов, но Мать Его сохранила их в своем сердце.
     После этого Отрок Иисус вернулся с Пречистою Матерью и названным отцом Своим в Назарет и жил у них преуспевая в премудрости и в любви у Бога и у людей.

8. Saint John the Baptist   (Matthew 3:1-12; Mark 1:1-18; Luke 3:1-18; John 1:15-28). Before the Savior's coming to the world, in the land of Judea there lived a pious priest called Zachariah with his wife Elizabeth. They were already old, and had no children. Once Zachariah, performing a divine service in the Jerusalem church, entered into the sanctuary for "каждения" [censing]. Here the archangel Gabriel appeared to him. Zachariah was confused, but the archangel told him: "be not afraid, Zachariah! Your prayer was heard: your wife Elizabeth will give birth to a son and you will name him John. He will be great before the Lord and will prepare the people to accept the Savior". – And how can I be sure of this"? Zachariah asked. The archangel answered him: "because you did not believe my words, you will be mute until this prediction will come true". Zachariah came out to the people, but could not say anything, and everybody understood, that he had a vision.
    The prediction of the archangel came true: to Zachariah and Elizabeth was born a son. Relatives and friends wanted to name the baby Zachariah, after the father, but Elizabeth told them: "no, call him John". Then everybody started saying: "among your relatives there is nobody by that name", and asked the father how he wanted to name the son. Zachariah with signs asked for a writing board and wrote on it: "John will be his name", and immediately his mouth opened and he started to speak.
    From an early age John lived in the desert and there he spent his time fasting and praying. He was dressed in clothes made from camel's hair, and his food was "акриды" (sort of a locust) and wild honey. When John became thirty years old, on God's command, he came to the river Jordan and started preaching: "Repent the kingdom of heaven is nearing". Those who repented of their sins, he baptized (christened) in the Jordan.

9. Baptism of the Lord.   (Matthew 3:13-17; Mark 1:9-11; Luke 3:21-22; John 1:32-34) (Baptism). When Jesus Christ was 30 years old, He has gone to the river Jordan to John the Baptist to be christened by him. At first John refused, and said "I have to be christened by you, and you came to me". But Jesus replied: "Let it go, we need to fulfill the truth". Then John christened Him. When Jesus Christ came out of the water, suddenly the heavens opened and the Holy Spirit came down onto Him in the form of the dove and the voice was heard from the heaven from God the Father: "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased".
     Since during Christening of the Lord the Holy Trinity appeared, this holy day is called Appearance of God (Богоявление).
     Christening of the Lord is observed on January, 6/19. On this Holy Day, in churches, water is blessed twice. First time after the Liturgy which is served a day before the Holy Day (January, 5/18). This water is referred to as "Evening Water". The second time on the day of the Holy Day after the Liturgy, there is a Cross procession which is called "Walk to Jordan". During this walk the water, which is called "Christening water" is blessed.

     Тропарь, глас 1-й:
     (1) В Иордане крещающуся Тебе, Господи,
     (2) Троическое явися поклонение:
     (3) Родителев бо глас свидетельствоваше Тебе,
     (4) возлюбленнаго Тя сына именуя:
     (5) и Дух, в виде голубине,
     (6) извествоваше словесе утверждение:
     (7) явлейся Христе Боже,
     (8) и мир просвещей, слава Тебе.

     Кондак, глас 4-й:
     (1) Явился еси днесь вселенней,
     (2) и свет Твой, Господи, знаменася на нас,
     (3) в разуме поющих Тя:
     (4) пришел еси и явился еси Свет неприступный.

     Tropar, 1st Tone:
     (1) В Иордане крещающуся Тебе, Господи,
When Thou wast baptized in the Jordan,
     (2) Троическое явися поклонение:
O Lord, the worship of the Trinity was made manifest;
     (3) Родителев бо глас свидетельствоваше Тебе,
for the voice of the Father bare witness to Thee,
     (4) возлюбленнаго Тя сына именуя:
calling Thee His beloved Son.
     (5) и Дух, в виде голубине,
And the Spirit in the form of a dove
     (6) извествоваше словесе утверждение:
confirmed the certainty of the word.
     (7) явлейся Христе Боже,
O Christ our God Who hast appeared
     (8) и мир просвещей, слава Тебе.
and hast enlightened the world, glory be to Thee!

10. Первые ученики Иисуса Христа.   (Матфея 10:2-14; Марка 3:13-19; Луки 6:12-16; 8:1-3). После крещения Иисус Христос удалился в пустыню и там 40 (сорок) дней и ночей провел в посте и молитве, не вкушая ничего. Там приступил к Нему дьявол и три раза искушал Его, но Господь отверг соблазн и отогнал от Себя дьявола, сказав, что одному Богу подобает кланяться и служить.
     А затем Спаситель снова пришел на берег Иордана, где крестил Иоанн. Увидев Иисуса, Иоанн сказал народу: «Вот Агнец Божий, Который берет на Себя грехи мира». Двое из учеников Иоанновых, - Андрей, названный Первозванным, и Иоанн Богослов последовали тотчас за Иисусом Христом. Потом Андрей призвал своего брата Симона, которого Иисус Христос назвал Петром.
     Число учеников Иисуса Христа постепенно увеличивалось. Из них Он избрал двенадцать и назвал их апостолами, т.е. посланниками, так как Он посылал их для проповеди Своего ученья.
     Имена апостолов следующие: Андрей и Петр, Иаков, Иоанн - сыновья Заведея, Филлип, Варфоломей, Фома, Матфей или Левий, Иаков Алфеев и Симон Зилот, Иуда Иаковлев и Иуда Искариотский.

11. Изгнание торгующих из храма.   (Иоанна 2:13-25). На праздник Пасхи Иисус Христос пришел в Иерусалим и увидел, что в храме продавали волов, овец и голубей, а за столами сидели меновщики денег. Господь сделал бич, выгнал из храма всех животных, опрокинул столы меновщиков и продавцам голубей сказал: «возьмите это отсюда и дома Отца Моего не делайте домом торговли». Начальники храма спросили Его «каким знамением докажешь Ты нам, что имеешь право так поступать»? Иисус Христос ответил им: «Разрушьте этот храм, и Я в три дня воздвигну его». Под храмом Он разумел Свое тело и этими словами предсказал, что когда Его убьют, Он воскреснет в третий день. Но иудеи не поняли Его и сказали: «Сорок шесть лет строили этот храм, как же Ты в три дня воздвигнешь его»?

12. Beheading of St. John the Baptist.   (Matthew 14:1-12; Mark 6:14-29; Luke 9:7-9). St. John the Baptist ended up his life with a martyr's death. He very often accused the governor of Galilee Herod, because he took for his wife Herodias, the wife of Philip, his brother. Herodias asked Herod to kill John, but Herod was not agreeing, because he respected John as a great prophet and was also afraid of the people. But, in other to please Herodias, he placed John in a prison.
     For his birthday Herod prepared a banquet for his noblemen. Daughter of Herodias Salome danced during the banquet and pleased everybody, so that Herod told her: "ask me for anything that you wish" and swore, that he will give her even the half of his kingdom. The girl went, and after talking to her mother returned saying: "give me on a platter the head of John the Baptist". Herod was saddened, but did not want to change his word, since he was embarrassed of guests, and sent a guard to the prison to cut off John's head. The guard brought the head of John the Baptist on a platter and gave it to the girl, and she gave it to her mother.
     The Church commemorates this day on August 29/September 11. This is a fast day.
     Note: This event is a good example of cruel morals among pagans before coming of Lord Jesus Christ. All this was gradually changed by Christianity (see the Beneficial Influence of Christianity (ДД-06ра)).

13. Transfiguration of the Lord.   (Матфея 17:1-13; Mark 9:2-13; Luke 9:28-36) (Transfiguration). Shortly before his torment, Jesus Christ took with Him three of his disciples: Peter, Jacob and John and went to the mountain Favor to pray. While He prayed the disciples fell asleep. When they woke up, they saw, that Jesus Christ has changed: his face was radiant as the sun, and the clothes were as white as snow, and Moses and Elijah appeared in their glory and talked to Him about sufferings and death which He had to endure in Jerusalem. When Moses and Elijah departed from Jesus Christ, Peter exclaimed: "My God! It is so good for us here; let us make three tents: one for You, one for Moses and one for Elijah". Suddenly a light cloud came upon them, and they heard a voice from the cloud: "This is My beloved Son, in Whom I am well pleased; listen to Him". The disciples in fear fell to the ground. Jesus Christ approached them, touched them and said: "Rise, do not be afraid"! Disciples rose and saw Jesus Christ in a usual way.
     Transfiguration of the Lord is observed on August, 6/19.

     Тропарь, глас 7-й:
     Преобразился еси на горе, Христе Боже,
     показавый учеником Твоим славу Твою, якоже можаху:
     да возсияет и нам грешным свет Твой присносущный,
     молитвами Богородицы, Светодавче, слава Тебе.

     Кондак, глас 7-й:
     На горе пеобразился еси,
     и якоже вмещаху ученицы Твои,
     славу Твою, Христе Боже, видеша:
     да егда Тя узрят распинаема,
     страдание убо уразумеют вольное,
     мирови же проповедят,
     яко Ты еси воистину Отчее сияние.

14. Lazarus' Resurrection.     (John 11:1-57; 12:9-11). Near Jerusalem there was a settlement called "Viphany" [Bethany]. In it lived someone named Lazarus with his two sisters - "Marfa" [Martha] and "Maria" [Mary]. The Lord loved Lazarus and often visited this pious family. Once Lazarus got sick. "Marfa" [Martha] and "Maria" [Mary] sent a message to Jesus Christ saying: "My Lord, the one whom You love, is sick". Jesus answered: "this sickness is not unto death, but to the glory of God". Two days passed. Jesus told His followers: "Lazarus, our friend, has died", and went with them to "Viphany" [Bethany].
    "Marfa" [Martha] met Jesus Christ and told Him: "My Lord, if You were here, my brother would not have died. But also I know, that whatever You ask of God, He will grant it to You". The Lord answered her: "your brother will be resurrected". Then "Maria" also came with her relatives and friends, and fell to Jesus Christ's feet and said: "My Lord, if You were here, my brother would not have died". Seeing their grief, Jesus Christ Himself shed tears. When they approached the cave, where Lazarus was buried, Jesus Christ said to remove the stone from the entrance into the cave. "Marfa" mentioned to Him: "My Lord! He already stinks, because he has been four days in the grave". Jesus Christ lifted His eyes heavenward and, after praying, loudly commanded: "Lazarus come forth"! The dead man came out of the grave, his hands and legs were bandaged, and his face tied with a scarf. Many Jews who saw this miracle, believed in Jesus Christ.
    The church remembers this event during Great Lent, on Saturday before Passion Week and before "The Entry of the Lord into Jerusalem", which is celebrated on Sunday, a week before Paskha.

15. Entry of the Lord into Jerusalem (Palm Sunday). (Matthew 21:1-17; Mark 11:1-19; Luke 19:29-48; John 12:12-19). Six days prior to Paskha, Jesus Christ went from Bethany to Jerusalem. In the middle of the journey, at His request, the disciples brought to Him a donkey with a colt so that He could ride on them. They laid their robes over them and Jesus Christ sat upon them and went to Jerusalem. When He was riding, a multitude of people came from Jerusalem to greet Him. Some removed their robes and spread them on the road; others cut off palm branches, carried them in their hands or threw them on the road and loudly exclaimed: "Hosanna to the Son of David"! Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the Highest"! Especially children with enthusiasm and joy welcomed the Savior and even in the temple shouted to Him: "Hosanna to the Son of David"!
    The entry of the Lord into Jerusalem is celebrated on Sunday, one week before Easter. During the divine service the willow (instead of palm branches) is consecrated and distributed. This happens during Great Lent, before Passion Week. Usually, on this day, pupils with parents and teachers receive the Holy Communion.

16. "Secret" [Last] Supper.   (Matthew 26:17-35; Mark 14:12-31; Luke 22:7-39; John 13; 14; 15; 16; 17; 18:1). Two days prior to Paskha, on Thursday in the morning, the disciples asked Jesus Christ "Where do you want us to prepare Paskha"? He answered: "go to the city of Jerusalem, there will be a person carrying a jug of water, follow him into the house and tell the owner of that house: the Teacher asks, where is a room in which I can have Paskha with My pupils? He will show you a big clean room, – prepare it there". The disciples left and did everything as the Lord told them. In the evening Jesus come with the twelve disciples and sat with them at the table. When they ate, the Lord got up, removed His outer clothing, wrapped himself with a towel, took a wash-basin and started to wash the feet of the disciples and to wipe them off with the towel. He did this to show them an example of humility. Having washed the feet of the disciples, Jesus dressed again and continued the supper. During the conversation with the disciples He said: "Truly I say to you, one of you will betray Me". This startled the disciples; they began to exchange glances and speak among themselves: "about whom is He speaking"? Then they started looking at each other and started asking: "Is it I Lord? Is it I"? And the favorite disciple of Jesus Christ, John, leaned towards Him and silently asked: "My Lord, who is it"? Jesus answered him: "the one to whom I shall give a piece of bread". He dipped a piece in a dish with salt and gave it to Judas "Iskariotskomu" [Iscariot]. After that Judas left immediately.
    The icon of the Last Supper can be found above the Royal doors in church.

17. Judas's Betrayal.   (Matthew 26:1-5; 14-16; Mark 14:1-2; 10-11; Luke 22:1-6). The Jewish "первосвященники" and "книжники" [chief priests and scribes] did not believe in Jesus Christ and hated Him, since He often exposed their wrongdoings. After the resurrection of Lazar [Lazarus] when many people believed in Jesus Christ, they decided to kill Him and only waited for an opportunity to seize Him secretly from the people. On the fourth day after the entrance of the Lord into Jerusalem, one of the closest disciples of the Lord, Judas "Iskariotsky" [Iscariot] came to them and said: "what will you give me if I will betray Him to you?" They promised to give him thirty silver coins, and from that moment he began looking for an opportunity to betray Jesus Christ.

18. Jesus Christ's capture and His Judgement at the Court of chief Priest "Каиафы" [Caiaphas].   (Matthew 26:57-68; 27:1; Mark 14:53-65; 15:1; Luke 22:54; 63-71; John 18:12-14; 19-24). At the end of the Last Supper, Jesus Christ went with his disciples to "Гефсиманский" garden [of Gethsemane]. Here He knelt, and fell on His face and prayed, saying: "Father if it is possible, let this cup pass Me by. However, let not My will be done, but Yours". His prayer was so powerful, that drops of bloody sweat fell from His face on the ground.
    When Jesus Christ had ended His prayer, Judas came to the garden with a group of soldiers and attendants of the chief priests. He told them: "The one I shall kiss, seize him". Then he approached the Lord with the words: "Rejoice Teacher!" and kissed Him. The soldiers took Jesus Christ and led Him to "первосвященникам" the [chief priests]; the disciples ran away in fear.
    At night (at the chief priest's Caiaphas)первосвященника Каиафы книжники (scribes) and elders gathered to judge Jesus Christ. There were many false witnesses, but they could not say anything, for what it would be possible to condemn Jesus Christ to death. Then the first priest "Каиафа" [Caiaphas] asked Him: "Tell to us, whether You are the Christ, the Son of God?" Jesus Christ answered him: "yes, I am". At these words "Каиафа" [Caiaphas] tore his clothes and said: "for what do we need witnesses? You heard the blasphemy. What do you think?" And everybody answered: "He deserves death".
    After that the chief priest's servants took Jesus Christ out of "Каиафы" [Caiaphas] house to the court yard and beat Him, spat on His face, and some people covered His face, struck Him on His cheeks and laughingly asked Him: "tell us, Christ who struck You?" The Lord patiently endured all of this.
    The suffering, death and burial of the Lord Jesus Christ are recalled by the Church in the week before Paskha, the last week of Great Lent which is called Passion Week. Every day of this week is called Great During the divine service, on Great Thursday in the evening ("утреня" Friday [matins]) the "12 Gospels" of Christ's sufferings are read. By "12 Gospels" is meant 12 portions from 4 Gospels:
         1. John 13:31-18:1
         2. John 18:1-28
         3. Matthew 26:57-75
         4. John 18:28-19:16
         5. Matthew 27:3-32
         6. Mark 15:16-32
         7. Matthew 27:33-54
         8. Luke 23:32-49
         9. John 19:25-37
         10. Mark 15:43-47
         11. John 19:38-42
         12. Matthew 27:62-66
     After the reading of each Gospel the number of rings of the bell designate what Gospel was read. After the 8th Gospel the touching prayer "The Sensible Thief?" is sung three times:
         To the sensible Thief
         in the last hour, you gave paradise My Lord:
         and in the same way teach me and save me with your wooden cross.

     On Great Friday during "вечерне" [vespers] (Friday after midday) the Shroud is taken out for worship, that is an image of Jesus Christ laying in a coffin. On Friday evening ("утреня" Saturday [matins]) the Shroud is carried around the church while singing "Holy God, Holy Mighty..". in memory of Jesus Christ's burial and His descending into Hell.

19. Judgement of Jesus Christ at Pontius Pilate.  
*1. (Matthew 27:2; 11-14; Mark 15:1-5; Luke 15:1-7; John 18:28-38)
*2. (Luke 23:8-12)
*3. (Матфея 27:2; 11-14; Mark 15:1-5; Luke 15:1-7; John 18:28-38)
    *1. Judgement of Jesus Christ at Pontius Pilate
    *2. Jesus Christ at the court of king "Irod" [Herod]
    *3. Last judgement of Jesus Christ at Pilate
    On Friday, early in the morning, "первосвященники" [the chief priests] led a tied up Jesus Christ to the Roman governor Pontius Pilate so that he would approve Jesus' death sentence. Pilate came out to them and asked: "of what do you accuse this Person?" Первосвященники and "книжники" [the chief priests and scribes] answered: "If He were not a villain, we would not hand Him over to you". Also, they started accusing Him, saying: "He is corrupting the people and calling Himself the Christ". Pilate interrogated Jesus Christ, but found no fault in Him. Knowing, that they had handed Him because of envy, Pilate addressed the people and said: "you have a custom that I should release one prisoner to you for Paskha; whom do you want me to release: Barabbas, or Jesus named the Christ?" The people prompted by the "первосвященниками" [chief priests], shouted in answer: "not Him, but Barabbas!" Barabbas was a robber. Pilate asked: "what do you want me to do, with the one you call King of the Jews?" Everybody responded: "yes let Him be crucified!"
   Then Pilate gave Jesus to be flogged (lashed). The soldiers took Him inside the courtyard and, tied Him to a column and flogged Him; then, mocking Him, they dressed Him in crimson clothes, on the head they placed a crown of thorns, and placed a stick into His hand, instead of a royal scepter, kneeled before Jesus Christ and said: "rejoice King of the Jews!" And then they spat on Him and, having taken from His hands the stick, beat Him on the head
    After the flogging Pilate brought out Jesus Christ in "багрянице" [the crimson robe] and the crown of thorns and said: "Here is the Person! I do not find any fault in Him". But the people seeing Jesus again, started shouting: "Crucify, crucify Him!" Pilate, seeing that the people were getting more and more indignant, took some water and washed his hands before everybody and said: "I am not guilty of the blood of this Righteous Person". The people in response shouted: "His Blood is on us and on our children!" Then Pilate handed over Jesus Christ to be crucified.
   The suffering, death and burial of the Lord Jesus Christ are recalled by the Church during the week before Paskha, that is the last week of Great Lent which is called Passion Week.

20. Crucifixion and Death of the Lord Jesus Christ.   (Matthew 27:33-56; Mark 15:22-41; Luke 23:33-49; John 19:18-37). The soldiers brought Jesus Christ to a hill called Golgotha, near Jerusalem, and there crucified Him between two thieves. Above His head, by the order of Pilate, they nailed a board with an inscription: "Jesus, of Nazareth, King of the Jews". When they were nailing Jesus Christ to the cross, He prayed for His enemies, saying: "Father! Forgive them: they do not know what they are doing".
   "Первосвященники" and "книжники" [The chief priests and scribes] laughed at Jesus Christ and said: "He was saving others, and cannot save Himself. If He is the King of Israel, let Him come down from the cross, and we shall believe in Him". The same was repeated by the people and the soldiers. Even one of thieves, crucified with the Lord, cursed Him and said: "If You are the Christ, save Yourself and us". But the other thief stopped him and said: "Are you not afraid of God when we ourselves were condemned for the same? But we were condemned fairly, and He did not do anything wrong". Then addressing Jesus Christ, this reasonable thief said: "Remember me, my Lord, when You come into Your Kingdom!" Jesus Christ answered him: "Truly I say to you: today you will be with Me in paradise".
   At the cross stood Christ's Mother and His favorite disciple, John. Jesus Christ seeing His Mother, told Her: "Here is Your son!" He then said to the disciple: "Here is your Mother". And after that John took the Most Holy Virgin Mary to his house and took care of Her, as his own mother.
   When Jesus Christ was crucified, it was midday, or, according to Jewish count, the sixth hour of the day. Suddenly the sun grew dim, and a great darkness continued for three hours. On the third hour after midday Jesus Christ loudly exclaimed: "My God! My God! Why did You forsake Me?" Then He said: "I am thirsty!" Then one of the soldiers wetted a sponge with vinegar, placed it on a stick and brought it to the lips of the Sufferer. Tasting the vinegar, Jesus Christ said: "It is done! Father, into Your hands I commit My spirit!" - bowed His head and died. At this moment the ground shook, stones were split, a veil in the church which separated the holy of holies from the sanctuary, split in two, from the top end to the bottom, and many bodies of the saints were resurrected. The captain and the soldiers at the cross, seeing these signs, said: "truly, He was the Son of God!" And the people who were at the crucifixion, in fear began to disperse, striking themselves in the chest.
   The evening arrived. "Первосвященникам" [The chief priests] did not want to leave the bodies of the crucified on the crosses till Saturday, because Saturday was the great holiday of Passover. Therefore they asked Pilate for permission to break the shins of the crucified ones so that they would die faster. Pilate allowed it. The soldiers went and broke the shins of the thieves; when they approached Jesus Christ, they saw that He was dead, and did not break His shins. But one of the soldiers pierced the side of the Lord with his spear, and from the wound poured blood and water.
    (Jews counted the hours from six in the morning or six in the evening. Seven o'clock in the morning according to our count they called the first hour of the day, our the twelfth – their sixth, etc.).

   The suffering, death and burial of the Lord Jesus Christ are recalled by the Church during the week before Paskha, that is the last week of Great Lent which is called Passion Week.

21. Burial of the Lord Jesus Christ.   (Matthew 27:57-66; Mark 15:42-47; Luke 23:50-56; John 19:38-42). On Friday, late at night, Joseph of "Аримафеи" [Arimathea], a secret disciple of Jesus Christ, came to Pilate and asked him for permission to remove from the cross and to bury Christ's body. Pilate ordered to give him the body. Then Joseph together with "Никодимом" [Nicodemus], also a secret Christ disciple, removed the body of the Lord from the cross, anointed it with fragrant oil and spices, wrapped it in a new shroud and buried near Golgotha, in Joseph's garden, in a new grave, dug in a rock, and placed a big stone at the entrance of the cave.
    On Saturday in the morning "первосвященники" and "книжники" [the chief priests and scribes] came again to "Пилату" [Pilate] and said: "Master, we remembered, that this liar when He was alive, said: in three days I shall resurrect; therefore order that the grave be guarded until the third day so that his disciples do not steal His body at night and tell the people: He has resurrected from the dead". Пилат [Pilate] answered: "you have a guard of soldiers: go, and guard yourself, as you know". They went away, applied a seal to the rock and placed a guard at the tomb.
    The suffering, death and burial of the Lord Jesus Christ are recalled by the Church during the week before Paskha, that is the last week of Great Lent which is called Passion Week.

22. Resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ. Christ's Paskha [Easter].   (Matthew 28:1-15; Mark 16:1-11; Luke 24:1-12) (John 20:1-18; Corinthians 15:3-5) On the first day after Saturday, early in the morning, Jesus Christ rose from the dead. A strong earthquake occurred at that moment. An angel of God descended from heaven; he appeared like a lightning, and his clothing was white, as snow. He removed the stone from the tomb and sat on it. The soldiers standing guard, fell to the ground from fear and became like dead men. After they regained consciousness they ran away. Some of them came to the chief priests and told everything that had happened. The chief priests gave them money and also taught them to say, that during the night, when they slept, Jesus Christ's disciples came and stole His body.
    The Feast of Feasts, Christ's Resurrection, Paskha (Easter), is observed on the first Sunday after the first spring full moon between March, 22nd/4th of April and April 25th/8th of May. At midnight (Saturday going to Sunday) "Заутреня" [Paschal Matins] is served which is followed by the Liturgy After these services Great Lent comes to an end and one can "разговляться" [break the lent, eat non lenten meals]. Paskha is celebrated seven days, but the Church Paschal period is actually 40 days, until Ascension.

     "Stihira" at the beginning of Matins, 6th Tone:
     The angels in heaven,
     O Christ our Saviour sing thy Resurrection
     And do thou enable us on earth
     to glorify Thee with a pure heart.

     "Tropar" [Troparion]:
     Christ is risen from the dead,
     Trampling down death by death,
     And to those in the tombs bestowing life.

23. Явление воскресшего Господа.   (Матфея; Марка; Луки; Иоанна). Когда начало светать, Мария Магдалина и с нею некоторые другие благочестивые женщины пошли ко гробу с благовонным миром, чтобы помазать тело Иисусово. Дорогою они говорили между собою: «кто отвалит нам камень от дверей гроба»? Прежде других ко гробу подошла Мария Магдалина, но, когда увидела, что камень отвален от гроба, побежала назад к Петру и Иоанну и сказала: «унесли Господа из гроба, и не знаем, где положили Его».
     Вслед за Марией Магдалиной пришли ко гробу и прочие мироносицы и увидели ангела, который сказал им: «вы ищите Иисуса Назарянина, распятого; Его нет здесь, Он воскрес. Вот место где Он был положен». Мироносицы в страхе побежали назад. На дороге Сам Иисус Христос явился им и сказал: «Радуйтесь»! Они пали на землю и поклонились Ему.
     В самый день Воскресения Христова, вечером, все апостолы кроме Фомы, были вместе, и двери был заперты. Вдруг явился им Иисус Христос и приветствовал их словами: «Мир вам»! Ученики испугались, думая, что это привидение. Но Он сказал им: «что смущаетесь! это Я Сам,» и при этом показал руки и ноги и ребра Свои. Ученики возрадовались, что видят Господа. Потом Он дунул на них и сказал: «Приимите Духа Святого: кому простите грехи, тому простятся, а на ком оставите, на том останутся».
     Когда пришел Фома, другие ученики говорили ему: «мы видели Господа»! Но Фома ответил им, что он не поверит до тех пор, пока сам не увидит Его и не осяжет ран на теле Его. Через восемь дней ученики снова были вместе и Фома с ними. Двери были заперты. Иисус Христос явился и сказал: «Мир вам»! Потом обратившись к Фоме прибавил: «подай перст твой сюда и посмотри руки Мои и не будь неверующим, но верующим». Фома воскликнул: «Господь Мой и Бог Мой»! А Иисус Христос сказал ему: «ты поверил, потому что увидел Меня, но блаженны те, которые не видели но поверили».
     По повелению Господа Иисуса Христа одинадцать апостолов пошли на одну гору в Галилее. Там они Увидели Иисуса Христа и поклонились Ему. Иисус Христос сказал им: «Мне дана всякая власть на небе и на земле. Идите и научите все народы, крестя их во имя Отца, и Сына и Святого Духа. Учите соблюдать все, что Я заповедал вам. И вот Я буду с вами до скончания века».

24. The Ascension of the Lord.   (Mark 16:15-19; Luke 24:46-53; Acts 1:2; 4-26) (Ascension). On the fortieth day after the resurrection from the dead, Lord Jesus Christ has appeared to His disciples and told them to remain in Jerusalem until they will receive the Holy Spirit. Then He led them from the city to the Eleon mountain and lifted hands and blessed them and while blessing, began to ascend to heaven. Finally, the light cloud has hidden Jesus Christ from the view of disciples. They looked at the sky for a long time. Suddenly two angels in white robes appeared and said: "Men of Galilee! Why do you stand and look at the sky? Jesus who has ascended to the heaven, will come in the same way as you have seen Him ascending to the sky". The disciples have bowed to the ascended Lord and with joy have returned to Jerusalem.
     The Ascension of the Lord is observed on the fortieth day after Paskha (Easter), always on Thursday.

     Тропарь, глас 4-й:
     Вознеслся еси во славе, Христе Боже наш,
     радость сотворивый учеником,
     обетованием Святаго Духа,
     извещенным им бывшим благословением:
     яко Ты еси Сын Божий, Избавитель мира.

     Кондак, глас 6-й:
     Еже о нас исполнив смотрение,
     и яже на земли соединив небесным,
     вознеслся еси во славе, Христе Боже наш,
     никакоже отлучаяся, но пребывая неотступный,
     и вопия любящим Тя:
     аз есмь с вами, и никтоже на вы.

25. The Descent of the Holy Spirit on the Apostles.   (Acts 2; 14:23) (Holy Trinity. Trinity. Pentecost). On the fiftieth day after Jesus Christ's resurrection, apostles with the Mother of God and other believers were together and prayed. In the third hour from the start of the day suddenly there came from the sky noise, like from a strong wind, and filled the entire house where they were, and tongues of flames appeared and came to rest on each one of them. All were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to glorify God in the languages which before they did not know.
     In Jerusalem at this time were many Jews who have come from the different countries, on the occasion of the Pentecost holiday. Having heard the noise, they have gathered around the house where the apostles were, and were amazed, that simple, uneducated people spoke in foreign languages. Then apostle Peter stood up and has explained to people, that they have received the Holy Spirit from Jesus Christ, who was crucified, but has risen from the dead. Hearing this sermon were moved in their heart and asked Peter: "What should we do"? Peter answered: "Repent and be christened in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. On that day about three thousand people were christened.
     The Coming of the Holy Spirit on the Apostles concludes the New Testament and the beginning of the preaching by apostoles and the History of the Christian Church. Events the Coming of the Holy Spirit are described in the Gospel, and the Coming itself and after are described in the book of the Apostles.
     The Coming of the Holy Spirit on the Apostles it is observed on the fiftieth day after Easter and is called the day of the Holy Trinity or Pentecost. The Holy Trinity is always on Sunday and is observed three days. There is no lent during that week, in other words Wednesday and Friday are not fasting days; therefore this week is called "continuous".

     Тропарь, глас 8-й:
     Благословен еси, Христе Боже наш,
     Иже премудры ловцы явлей,
     ниспослав им Духа Святаго,
     и теми уловлей вселенную,
     Человеколюбче, слава Тебе.

     Кондак, глас 8-й:
     Егда снишед языки слия,
     разделяше языки Вышний:
     егда же огненныя языки раздаяше,
     в соединение вся призва:
     и согласно славим Всесвятаго Духа.

26. Dormition of the Mother of God (Dormition).    After the crucifixion of the Lord Jesus Christ, the Mother of God lived in Jerusalem in the house of saint apostle John the Theologian. She was informed about Her dormition three days prior by the archangel Gabriel. Then according to Her wishes all apostles, except Thomas, were miraculously gathered in Jerusalem by the power of God. At the hour of departure unusual light illumined the room where the Mother of God was; the Lord Jesus Christ appeared and took Her holy soul. Her body apostles buried in Gefsimany's garden, in a cave, where the bodies of Her parents and the righteous Joseph were resting. After three days apostle Thomas arrived and wanted to bow to the body of the Mother of God. But when the cave was opened, the body was not found. Apostles stood in perplexity. Suddenly the Mother of God Herself appeared and said: "Rejoice! I will be always be praying for you before God".
     Dormition of the Mother of God is observed on 15/28 of August.

     Тропарь, глас 1-й:
     В рождестве девство сохранила еси,
     во успении мира не оставила еси, Богородице,
     преставилася еси к животу, Мати сущи Живота,
     и молитвами Твоими избавляеши от смерти душы нашя.

     Кондак, глас 2-й:
     В молитвах неусыпающую Богородицу,
     и в предстательствах непреложное упование,
     гроб и умерщвление не удержаста:
     якоже бо Живота Матерь,
     к Животу престави во утробу Вселивыйся приснодевственную.

Литература на наших эл. стр.
Life of Lord Jesus Christ (ДД-21.1а)    R    RE
Miracles of Lord Jesus Christ (ДД-21.2а)    R    RE
Parables of Lord Jesus Christ (ДД-21.3а)    R    RE
Teacing of Lord Jesus Christ (ДД-21.4а)    R    RE
The Law of God (Archpriest S. Slobodskoy) (ДД-55ар)    R

[П1] Эта работа была написана для учеников «Русской Церковной Гимназии при Храме всех Святых в Земле Российской просиявших», в г. Бурлингейм, штат Калифорния. Так как некоторые ученики не так хорошо владеют русским языком, для того что бы они могли быстрее осилить и усвоить русский текст, то специально для них был прибавлен к русскому тексту, английский.
[П2] Russian Alphabet (SE-03)

Духовный листок «Дорога домой. Выпуск ДД-21.1а -
Жизнь Господа Иисуса Христа»
Храм всех Святых в Земле Российской просиявших (АНМ),
г.Бурлингейм, штат Калифорния
Church of all Russian Saints (AM),
744 El Camino Real, Burlingame, California 94010-5005
эл. стр.: http://www.dorogadomoj.com/
de211zih.html,  (24сен89),  (I-й вып:16нбр99),  06апр07а
пер.дв.пр. ЕБТ; анг.ред:№8 о.А.Кочергин